Alfonso was born in Madrid, Spain. In 1996 he received his undergraduate degree in Theoretical Physics from the Universidad Autónoma de Madrid. He did his graduate studies in the same university and earned a PhD in 2000 for his work on models of associative memory and persistent neural activity in the laboratory of Néstor Parga. He then moved to Boston to do research on network mechanisms of spatial working memory and interval timing as a post-doctoral fellow in the laboratory of Xiao-Jing Wang, at Brandeis University. During his stay at Boston, he spent the summer of 2002 realizing how much he liked electrophysiology at the Neural Systems and Behavior course at the Marine Biology Laboratory in Woodshole, MA. In 2004 he joined the Instituto de Neurociencias de Alicante as a Ramon y Cajal investigator. In 2005, convinced that significant advances in our understanding of the way information is processed by neuronal circuits will require combining theoretical approaches with the ability to monitor the simultaneous activity of large neuronal populations, he returned to the USA to join the laboratory of Ken Harris, at Rutgers University. At Rutgers, he used large-scale electrophysiological recordings in vivo and mathematical modeling to study the structure of temporal correlations in cortical circuits. His laboratory at the Champalimaud Neuroscience Program will use population recordings in awake behaving rodents, network modeling and data-analysis tools to investigate how cognition is shaped by the dynamics of neuronal circuits.